Books by EDWARD L. BERNAYS. CRYSTALLIZING PUBLIC OPINION (). AN OUTLINE OF CAREERS (). (Edited and contributed to). PROPAGANDA . Bernays Edward L. bernasungueta.mlioned: mimetype: application/pdf Crystallizing Public Opinion. Books by EDWARD L. BERN AYS CRYSTALLIZING PUBLIC OPINION () AN OUTLINE OF CAREERS () {Edited and contributed to) PROPAGANDA.

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CRYSTALLIZING. PUBLIC OPINION. - wid.. Books by EDWARD L. BERNAYS. CRYSTALLIZING PUBLIC OPINION (). AN OUTLINE OF CAREERS (). Bernays had more to do with developing acceptance of PR and public relations Edward L. Bernays. Crystall izing Pu blic Opinion. N. Y: Boni and. Liveright,. Inc., . how public. Opinion is crystallized into desired action, ELB says. Editorial Reviews. Review. “Mr. Bernays was one of the first people to expand what had been a Crystallizing Public Opinion by [Bernays, Edward L.].

People don't have time or the drive to research every single opinion so it's easier to find someone they trust and then fall in line with their leader's opinions. From the book and also the long introduction at the beginning it sounds like Bernays was very high and mighty as he essentially sorts people into the smart people and the stupid people.

It's the smart people, of which there are very few, who have the responsibility of keeping things running and molding peoples' minds to go along with the program.

Here is a quote from the introduction about Bernays: "He expressed little respect for the average person's ability to think out, understand, or act upon the world in which they live Bernays then sketched a picture of the public relations expert as a member of the 'intellegent few' who advises clients on how to 'deal with the masses It is safer to hire a press agent who stands between the group and the newspapers.

These judgments are the tools of his daily being and yet they are his judgments, not on a basis of research and logical deduction, but for the most part dogmatic expressions accepted on the authority of his parents, his teachers, his church, and of his social, his economic, and other leaders. The rational method adequately used would have told him that on the great majority of these questions there could be for him but one attitude - that of suspended judgement.

The reader will recall from his own experience an almost infinite number of instances in which the amateur has been fully prepared to deliver expert advice and to give final judgment in matters upon which his ignorance is patent to every one except himself. Or, instinct-emotion pairs like flight - fear , revulsion - disgust , pugnacity- anger , and others. He encourages the public relations counsel to imagine himself in turn as a member of the different groups he must reach, and thereafter construct a campaign which will appeal to as many as possible.

For example, a hotel wishing to demonstrate its prominence can hold a public celebration with carefully chosen guests — including "a leading banker, a society woman, a prominent lawyer, an influential preacher, and so forth until a cross section of the city's most telling activities is mirrored in the committee.

The public relations counsel must therefore generate news , "no matter what the medium which broadcasts this news. He must isolate ideas and develop them into events so that they can be more readily understood and so that they may claim attention as news. Once interesting news is created it will propagate itself through media channels which already seek to capture public attention. He stresses the centrality of newspapers to culture and writes that the public relations counselor must supply "truthful, accurate, and verifiable news" to remain in the journalists' good graces.

Bernays quotes William Henry Irwin 's definition that news is "a departure from the established order".

Then, he quotes Irwin's list of principles for newsworthiness, which he points out may somewhat contradict the definition: [2] "We prefer to read about the things we like. Lippmann wrote that a press agent stands between the event and the press in order to control the flow of information.

Bernays writes that a counsel on public relations does not merely purvey news but create it. The resulting material must of course be truthful and accurate—and furthermore it must be well-written and dispensed with sensitivity to the needs of the various media through which it will be broadcast.

Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution. There abolition questions.

But as the platform, the pulpit, and the lyceum or citizens late as Horace Greeley was still protesting debating club, were fully enlisted in the propa- the so-called puff advertising. It was The expression of Cornelius Vanderbilt, the inherent even in the semantics of the terminology. Rapid industrial expansion of the Rebellion," the South, the "War Between the country under leaders of great individualism who States. Industrialists sincerely order to win support, each for his side. Lincoln believed that private business was nobody else's expressed his concept of the vital nature of these business.

Exploitation went on without inter- I activities when he said, "In this and like communi- ference by Government. Technology moved Mil- ties public sentiment is everything.

Bernays Edward L. Crystallizing Public Opinion

With public faster than society's ability to cope with it. Gras, the economic historian, has said succeed. Consequently he who molds public senti- of this period, "American business in the 1 9th ment goes deeper than he who accepts or makes Century went back to the exclusiveness of the decisions.

Press United States, found advertising was "playing agents, following P.

But be- In , Woodrow Wilson, later to become cause of the growth of advertising, newspapers President of the United States, in an essay on gradually became more independent and came out "Cabinet Government in the United States," made of their semi-subsidized state. He urged that congressmen "should leg- receive the attention of students until the late islate as if in the presence of the whole country. LeBon's La Foule reflected the And he contended that "only in such an atmos- beginning of social scientists' concern with the phere of publicity could representative government psychology of the crowd.

This was followed. Tarde thought of the public as of Manufacturers in , clearly drew the line composed of individuals not in immediate co. This period developed a reaction against the There was a growing awareness at this time excesses of business being carried on by "the rob- that publicity could be utilized to bring about ber barons.

Y-as : Matthew Josephson described sccial control by government of industrial activi- them. Religious leaders, farmers, workers, intel- ties, as well as for stimulating the interest of the lectuals, reformers carried on the fight. They public in an individual or organization, and build- ing goodwill.

At the close of the roth Century, publicity had Their function was to obtain newspaper space great vogue as a curative for the evils of mon? This process of informing the public was The movement gained momentum dunng the often merely the now-familiar whitewash.

But first decade of the zoth Century, when the so- in some cases such dissemination of information cal1ed muckrakers took up the cry. This indicated a growing awareness by business The Public Be Informed Period-I90o of the part public opinion plays in its life-a far Meanwhile the question of a terminology to cry from the previous laissez faire period.

But apply to such activities was more frequently dis- these men did not consider it a part of their func- cussed.

Crystallizing public opinion

In , Dorman Eaton, a lawyer, gave a tion to recommend to clients policies and prac- talk before the Yale Law School graduating class. He used the term "public relations" meaning "re- They merely conceded that the public was no lations for the public good.

They were to whitewash The term cropped up again in the early ' s their clients when unsocial practices existed, or when the trade journals of the public utility field, inform the public when the clients were meritori- the Electric Railway Journal, the Railway Age ous. In , Henry C. Adams, entrusted with set- It was in the atmosphere of Theodore Roose- ting up the system -of railroad accounts for the velt's Square Deal that writers such as Upton Interstate Commerce Commission, wrote an article Sinclair and Ida M.

Tarbel1, and publishers such "What Is Publicity?

Indeed for whatever point of view A symbol of this early zoth Century determina- from which the trust problem is considered, pub- tion that the public be informed was Ivy Lee, who licity stands as the first step in its solution.

Rocke- this thesis when, as President, he inaugu- feller, dramatizing an evolving conception of re- rated his program of monopoly control. In a lations between industry and the public. Also about this time institutional facts in which the public is concerned The YMCA boasted a press secre- into legislation. In , in the second seSSIOn of tary as early as But they had little effect Bureau of Corporations for the first time WIth on the attitudes and actions of business itself.

The best thing that you can do with nations at war resulted in heightened recognition anything that is crooked is to lift it up :",he:e of the possibility of shaping events and so in- people can see that it is crooked, and then It ,; creased the scramble for free publicity after the either straighten itself out or disappear.

Nothing War. This was called by many "space grabbing. The Committee on Public Information, the Rise of a New Profession war agency initiated in , focused attention Stimulated by the War, interest in the whole on the importance of ideas as weapons. I was a opinion field broadened.

The activities in which bated in the popular magazines, mulled over in the I participated there heightened and. Our effort to build up morale in this ance in Webster's Dictionary in Comments revealed an initial tions.

The editor of the Survey, answering belabored on the basis of two false assumptions: a letter from the publisher asking whether a I he was trying to get pieces in the newspapers, book on public relations would serve a useful pur- 2 public relations counsel was a euphemism for pose, wrote, "I guess there is a big need in my press agent.

He is no period of change. This demanded greater adjust- primitive drum-beater He is devoid of swank ment of groups and individuals. ICduca- pet-the Art of Controlling Minds, still thought tion and literacy spread. The agencies of mass of the public relations counsel in the old way, communication increased in size and number.

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National magazines increased their New Y ork Herald recognized the new conception circulation. Among newspapers, 55 chains con- of the counsel on public relations and his methods trolled dailies. Hordes of publicity agents in an editorial in which it commented that "the served products and causes.

And causes, worthy old press agent has gone. Any idea could be built up if dealt zigzag line. The horse and buggy idea that public with skillfully. Lindbergh's flight were some of the focal points One ofthe publicity highspots of the early 20'S of the era's interest. People, tired of war issues, refunds in , a practice which was abandoned became interested in ballyhoo. Waves of conta- after the year, as a result of the opposition of more gious excitement spread over the land in.

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In , N. The concept emphasized The expanding economy of the Twenties pro- in this book, that every entity should learn to vided many opportunities for public relations ac- understand the public and act constructively to tivity.Due to negative implications surrounding the word propaganda because of its use by the Germans in World War I, he promoted the term "Public Relations".

II", called Contact, which my associate, Doris E. The individual had leaders and the glory of Greek history and stimu- not yet developed a sense of personal identity. I was a opinion field broadened. This was called by many "space grabbing.